Freud’s understanding of human nature is “pessimistic”; he emphasizes the dominance of the irrational, instinctive and unconscious motives over rational, conscious and moral. The man is a tragic and split creature within himself, with an intense conflict between the conscious and the unconscious, the instinctive and the spiritual, the pleasure principle and the reality principle. He is a creature prone to self-deception and one of the biggest self-deceptions and illusions is – religion. The creator of psychoanalysis seeks to systematically demystify its origin, substance, its social and psychological function in his in-depth critique of religion. The origins of religion lie in the response of feelings of guilt and remorse, as a result of the murder of the primal father. God is the idealized infantile omnipotent father figure, who protects rewards and punishes, while the comfort of religion is a collective illusion, a response to feelings of helplessness. This consolation is pleasant, but not real, says Freud. Careful study and analysis of the texts of letters of the first psychoanalyst, as well as testimonies of his closest associates, reveal that this uncompromising atheist has his own religion – Science, and that his hidden God is – Logos.
The domination of structuralism in linguistics and in other humanities and social sciences during XX century has led to the suppression of philology. The focus of academic research on the linguistic system and the exclusion of the semantic and communicational function of the language, i.e. the text, has proven itself inadequate in answering our need to understand the modern world. Philology is re-actualized as a neophilology which takes into account all theoretical insights of structural linguistics, but also renews the complex analytic approach to the text and again confirms itself as an irreplaceable study of man. The programs of modern university education, including those built on the basis of so called Bologna Declaration, implicitly confirm this tendency. Using the example of the metamorphosis of oriental philology as an interdisciplinary academic field at the Faculty of Philology in Belgrade it is shown how disintegration and fragmentation of a classical philological discipline represent a cyclic move towards a new program complexity. Syllabi of modern studies are, in fact and in essence, neophilologically designed, even though the mention of philology is, by order of academic correctness, avoided.
The aim of this paper is to show the cultural and intellectual relevance of thought of William Morris at the beginning of the third millennium. It is primarily exposed in his novel “News from Nowhere”, which is a utopian vision of a society whose main feature is concomitant aestheticism and simplification of life in an age that could be called post-post-industrial. The first part of the paper analyses elements of the intellectual biography of William Morris and points to a fundamental diversity of understanding of and reception of his work over the past hundred and fifty years. The paper then analyzes the main features of his utopian imagination and exposes arguments that speak in favor of their permanent relevance. The final part of the paper confirms the claim that William Morris was primarily a morrist – a term which denotes its original synthesis of romanticism, Marxism and utopianism.
This paper shows that fears of the modern age have built up so intensively that we can now talk about the catastrophe culture. At the moment when it seems impossible to ensure means for risk reduction and the behavior of both nature and the society appears unpredictable, a universal feeling of fear of the coming catastrophe is born. We can say that catastrophism is becoming the ethos of the global world order. The feeling of powerlessness lies in the gap between our fears and our replies to fears. The exits which are offered us follow along the traced paths of development embedded in the hegemonic model of neo-liberalism and globalization, which smothers all alternatives and expects help to arrive from the directions that caused the problem in the first place. The future is a problem that needs to be solved using all means available, as it is hard to believe that history has left only a few doors open.
This study explores the leadership style of a theater director, producer and manager, Mira Trailović (1924 -1989). Her personal story is one of professional development in the theatrical world of former Yugoslavia, but it is also a story about the social and cultural development of Belgrade and Yugoslavia from 1956 to 1989 (the period of her most intensive professional activity), to which she contributed a great deal. A major question of this essay is to what extent did Trailović’s leadership capacities contribute to the development of new organizational forms in culture and new managerial methods (adaptable quality management) as well as to specific organizational cultures (Dragićević Šešić & Dragojević, 2005). In addition, there is consideration of the extent to which those leadership capacities contributed to the changing horizons of expectations in culture, as well as their impact on the opinion-makers and political leaders in the Socialist Yugoslavia (specifically expectations regarding the aesthetical and ethical values of theater performances). In this study we would like to investigate the actual power of the arts when they are “managed” by a person with courage, vision and determination. We would also like to elucidate what qualities (values, knowledge, capacities, and skills) have distinguished Trailović and made her successful at a time when leaders were predominantly men, drawn from the ranks of the Yugoslav Partisans and the communist movement. The methods of research presented here will comprise archival analyses, bibliographic research (different publications on the history of the institutions she founded), interviews with key collaborators (34 interviews made and published by Feliks Pašić) and also the personal experiences of the author of this text (an internship “diary” in a form of ethnographic research according to the then university curricular demands).
Assuming that play is seriously endangered in modern culture, the necessity imposes itself for revalorization of the idea of play as an unavoidable value of culture. Edgar Morin shows that modern technoeconomic civilization is based on ”reductive understanding” of man. Homo sapiens and Homo faber have an absolute domination and they “determine and over determine” each other. According to him, the idea of homo excludes all that is demens – dream, passion, myth, all that is ludens – play, pleasure and amusement, and all that is amatro too – a man capable of loving. The fact is that the whole spiritual content of the world can be reproduced in play, proves that play is a foundation and an inavoidable value of culture.
Deemed most creditable for the doctrinal and ideological foundation of Christianity, Constantine the Great was sanctified and considered an almost apostolic figure. It is believed that Constantine decided to take Christian faith after seeing the Christ monogram in a dream and a vision just before the Battle of the Milvian bridge. By God’s grace he was told that if he accepted the sign of Christianity and marked the shields of his soldiers with it, he would be victorious. If at that period of time pagan beliefs prevailed in him, then we can observe how he gradually accepted Christian faith in the years to come. Constantine became a pragmatic and a rational believer who was formally baptized at the end of his life.
One of the permanent paradoxes of human history is that during several thousand years religious pluralism was one of the major causes of conflicts and wars and a challenge for eventual religious tolerance, which seemed to be just a well-wishing attempt (that could not be permanently established, so far). Thus, one can follow two lines – the history of religious conflicts and wars, and the history of (religious) tolerance (or standpoints which advocate tolerance, in particular religious tolerance). Although one can find examples of ideas of tolerance in various times and cultures, one can also find religious conflicts and wars repeating in various times and cultures, from very ancient times, to present day.
This text considers the phenomena of social character and cultural pattern through a line of paradoxal statements on the topic. Relying on relevant antropological and philosophical world literature the author has determined the subject of his research and has approached the study of the social character of the Serbian people offering comprehensive supporting antropological, ethnological and literary material.
Reaching maturity of the individual body, spirit and soul /not that of a people/ is a troubled and a lifetime long process. There are multiple factors that may speed up or slow down this process of maturing, i.e. the process of giving sense /”will for sense”/ to one’s life. Psychologists, psychotherapists, philosophers and religious thinkers have little doubt left or never had any that a dialogue with people of different life beliefs /religious and ideological/ secure a path to real individualization and/or divination of a man. A constant enrichment of not only spiritual and intellectual but also emotional /irrational/ being of a individual taking the thorny path of life /homo viator/ raises one’s tolerance to the Other and Otherness.