THE ROLE OF TOYS IN FORMATION OF GENDER STEREOTYPES IN CHILDREN

In this paper we analyze the way in which gender stereotypes are incorporated in children toys. We are interested in finding hidden projections, such as ideas, values and models of nowadays toys and associated advertising messages. Based on observed visual and linguistic messages, we’ll try to reveal their meaning and consequences that this way stereotyped objects of mass production may have on future generations. When for the first time it is introduced to stereotypes, a child adopts them as a natural arrangement of culture to which it belongs. It gradually organizes, simplifies and connects information received from its environment. In that way a child adopts the social and cultural norms and accepts certain patterns of behavior that will become an integral part of its personality and its own identity.

By exploring manifestations of gender stereotypes in the world of toys, this paper starts from specific objects of research found in the local market and investigates their contextualization. The functional categorization, and the media presentation and design, discover specific intentionally incorporated codes, which have an important role in the formation of gender stereotypes in children. At the same time, they draw a boundary between the sexes, defining areas of action and interest that the emerging entities should follow. Empirical research done in this paper, which had the aim to detect implementation of gender stereotypes in children, was primarily based on the psychological studies. However, in this paper, we have also tried to stress the economic aspect, and business strategies that the toy industry intentionally produces mentioned stereotypes in purpose of achieving profit. From this perspective, emerged the need for a review of values and behavioral patterns that industry offers to our children trough the toys.

COMMODIFIED PLAY – CRITICAL PERSPECTIVES OF ART OF DIGITAL GAMES

The fundamental changes in the global mode of production occured in the second half of 20th century, with important role of concept of free time and the notion of play. Being structurally decentralized and flexible, digital capitalism moves into the sphere od social networks, massive online games and friend aggregators platform. The notion of play is deeply integrated in micro and macro economies of these interactive environments, by creating social capital, symbolic capital, emotional capital, and last but not least, financial capital.

The works of Paolo Virno and Matteo Paquinelli are helpful in understanding the innovative and competitive aspects of network. Innovative and competitive aspect of social (digital) networks and culture in general, is thus, conceived as inherent “animal spirit” in human that eventually results in “immaterial civil war”. In this sense culture is not something that “humanize” animal in human, but is rather one of many aspects of numerous struggles in society of pure “zoe”. Situationists’ vision of future society as society with minimal necessary work, endless situations of play and interaction, is today materialized through distopian model of massive militant games, network pornography and financialization of libido.

Nick Dyer Whiteford i Greg de Peuter propose models and present some possible artistic approaches that can accurately respond to challenges that digital capitalism and its basis in libidinal economies, are bringing.

PRAGMATIC INFORMATIONAL NEO-PLATONIS (PIN) CODE FOR ACTION ETHICS

This paper raises and analyses two theses. First has been put forward with the claim that it is essential to classify media, formally and institutionally, as educational systems. Second treats the contents of media ethics and argues that its continuing and sustainable improvement is to be carried out by continuous action ethics directed towads a particular educational programs for children and youth that categorize learning virtues and learning about virtues as a form of literacy. Strategic learning and informational postulate of action ethics we named Pragmatic Informational Neo-Platonism (PIN). In conclusion we argue that interdisciplinary and simultaneous instrumentalization of educational media and school systems with aim to develop virtues, create substantial and subsequently formal prerequisites that establish the circulation of summary of axiological processes leading to the structural changes in the nature of media and society.

AFFIRMATIVE MEDIA USE OF NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES: BORAT AS CONCRETE UNIVERSAL

The paper proposes an analysis of stereotype representations in the movie Borat: Cultural Learnings of America for Make Benefit Glorious Nation of Kazakhstan (2006) based on the Hegelian concept of concrete universal in comedy, which then constitutes the ground for reflection on the possibility of positive usage of negative stereotypes, the usage that would make possible to point out the mode in which the stereotypical constructions function, as well as possible way of their subversion within their own domain. We will claim that the character of Borat embodies the Western stereotype of a member of a poor non-capitalist country and that, when confronted with an embodiment of its own stereotypes and prejudices, it becomes evident that the Western society is reduced to nothing but stereotypes as well, but the ones that present themselves as unquestionable.This confrontation brings about a certain short circuit which is the basis for subversion that makes the mechanisms by which stereotypes function visible. As Borat is an embodiment of the above mentioned stereotype, an attempt to classify all the stereotypes in the movie must inevitably fail, because many of them converge in only one character or situation, which brings stereotypical representations to maximum but also to the point of absurd. Nevertheless we will claim that although it seems that the ethnical stereotype is dominant in the movie, it is actually the class stereotype that is the dominant one. The figure of concrete universal at which particular and universal merge is the figure which subverts the very structure in which it appears. Merely its presence in the structure makes the necessarily hidden function mechanisms of the structure visible. Borat is precisely such (concrete universal) character who in the current ideological constellation of dominating global capitalist pretensions points out the moment of potential subversion.

STEREOTYPES IN SERBIAN TV COMMERCIALS

The article is conceived as a metatext that identifies stereotypes in the local commercials industry and interprets them as a possible reflection of the late capitalism ideology. The chosen commercial stereotypes I consider here as a symbolic representations, based on “active process of selection, presentation, structuring and shaping”. Understood as idea and value, ideology supports basic elements of one’s identity operating with stereotypes, which for their part “narrow, condense, simplify” these elements. The aim was to map concrete individual stereotypes, and in the same time investigate whether stereotypes in commercials are also collective themes, i.e. social processes. I tried to establish a theoretical platform for understanding intentions underlying potential creation of a social tissue, which will eventually suggest a more consistent and ethically more desirable representation.

ETHICS OF MEDIA IN EDUCATION SYSTEM

ETHICS OF MEDIA – BETWEEN INDIVIDUAL, PROFESSIONAL AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

Their scope being direct and actually global, the ethic responsibility of media is huge, perhaps even far greater than that of other public institutions. Media comprehand reality and present it; this respects always rises a question to which extent they deconstruct that reality, and then in a way and in accordance with someone’s expectations represent the acquired image. The starting point of this essay is the assumption that the media ethics is a phenomenological form of the applied ethics. Following these tracks the author tends to underline the importance of democratic social milieu in pursue of high level of their ethic quality. A precondition of positive changes, at least partly, lies in the evolution of consciousness of political and economic powerful figures who have to change their relation towards mechanism of media functioning and its effects. However, a positive and stimulating ambience alone is not sufficient in pursue of this goal. Without an active participation of media workers, owners and media managers, professional associations and effective engagement of critical and pro-active public high quality, ethical and responsible media activity is impossible.

ETHICS OF THE NARRATIVE OF REMEMBERANCE AND TESTIMONY: BALKAN WAR IN CINEMA

The concern of this paper is twofold. First, it outlines the ethics of cinema as media as argued by the theories of André Bazin, Barthes, Ranciere, Shoshanna Feldman and Dori Laub. Second, it analysis the texts chosen as the case studies – Harrison’s Flowers, The Fourth Man, The Hunting Party and Storm – that include the narratives of remembrance, witnessing and testimony. Beside offering examples of the ethical work of cinema through the moments of testimony/witnessing, evocation of the recent past they answer the questions of the guilt, responsibility, reconciliation, forgiveness or true nature of the recent Balkan wars.

MONTHLY WOMEN MAGAZINES AND STEREOTYPES – WOMAN AS AN AESTHETIC OBJECT

Media representation is a process used not only for exchanging of specific meanings and values inside a culture, but also for generating them. My intention here was to found what kinds of woman representation models are supported in Serbian monthly magazines for women and to discuss relations between those representations, stereotypes, and actual questions about media ethics.

The analysis of content indicated that a beauty myth is a dominant axiology for content constitution in four analyzed magazines – Lepota i zdravlje, Joy, Beauty Expert and Top zdravlje. The content of these magazines suggests that women are most interested in topics about fashion, make-up, cosmetic treatments, beauty and carrier, and the role of beauty in relations with men. The representation of woman is not that much reduced on representational figures (housewife, mother, wife, model, super star) as it is on specific model of behavior primarily connected with woman’s body and engagement of all woman’s capabilities in reaching the specific beauty standards.

The must ’be pretty’ which these magazines impose on woman exists as an up-to-date version of the stereotype once characteristic for traditional, patriarchal society – men look and women look good. The function of woman is only aesthetic – she appears as the object of other’s enjoyment in her beauty. That way, the stereotype representation of woman as aesthetic object of man’s pleasure is confirmed. The readers of these magazines should be passive, inferior and incompetent to put forward any other skills except their beauty.

The nature of representations of woman in these four monthly magazines in fact exists as a consequence of putting into effect the consumerism strategies for consumption increase and profit acquiring by the cosmetic and fashion companies. The mechanic of market not only offers products for satisfying consumers’ needs. It also produces the consumers’ need for goods and necessity of this need as real providing the continuity of consumerism.

NEW MEDIA IMAGE AND PERFORMING ARTS: FORMS OF INTERACTION

The work deals with forms of interaction between performing and screen image, and the role of new media in the post-drama theatre. In the context of electronic representation and reproduction of performing arts, mostly reducable to translation into the screen image, I analysed the screen phenomenon, its genealogy and position related to spectator’s and performer’s body. Taking performance studies as theoretical starting point, and remaing within the framework of the post-drama and screen theory discourse, I discuss possible models of interaction between the new media image and performance in the sphere of theatre, performance and video instalation. A special attention is devoted to the analysis of relation of screen image and performer’s body, where the present body becomes the final destination, and fascination with the living body entails desire for something beyond appearance. In that contexts I deal with the issue of ethic foundations of the media/screen culture universe in its relation to performing arts, pointing to processes through which the use of media technologies in performing arts results in simultaneity and introduction of uncertainty into the reality status of the performed.