The paper deals with analysis of economic measures of cultural policy in Serbia from the perspective of their influence on boosting philanthropy and promoting bequests. The first part of the paper explains conceptual terminology of the basic dimensions of philanthropy. The second part of the paper discusses economic measures of cultural policy from the perspective of theirs role in creating institutional framework for development and sustainability of philanthropy and bequests. At the end of the paper cultural policy recommendations for improvement of national cultural policy are presented.
This paper deals with the status of bequest in the Serbian museums practice. The first part covers understanding of the concept of be quest by several authors, as well as legal interpretation and valid legislation related to bequests. Special attention is drawn to the lack of a definitive legal procedure which would regulate what museums should do with such bequests. The second part of the paper covers the treatment and position of bequests at the Belgrade City Museum – a museum institution which manages twenty-eight bequests. All the be quests currently managed by the Museum are listed and detailed analyses of several bequests are given as examples of good and poor practice.In the end, an interpretation of different treatments of such museum collections after WW2 are reviewed from the angle of historic legal regulations and practical approaches.
Hristifor Crnilović (Vlasotince) (1886-1963) was a painter, professor of painting, ethnographer and collector of objects of material culture and folk knowledge. He offered his great collection to the City of Belgrade to establish a permanent exhibition. From the first negotiations with there presentatives of the City of Belgrade in 1958, when it was decided that the collection had great cultural and historical value, the realization of his original idea was completed after 10 years i.e. unfortunately 5 years after his death. In accordance with modern tendencies and theories of museum and museology development as well as new visions of understanding the role of museums in the society, in addition to already established forms of activities, organization of occasional exhibitions, lectures, educational and pedagogical work, Ethnographic Museum experts have recognized potential for new ways of working with their audience through educational programmes of old crafts, various skills, folk handicrafts and old artistic techniques. This innovative form of involving the public in the process of preserving intangible cultural heritage and cooperation with other cultural institutions has also been part of the work plan of the House of Manak, from the 1990s to this day.
The subject of this paper is presentation of the photographic be quests of Stevan Kragujević at the Museum of Yugoslavia and its cultural, historical, social and artistic significance. It also covers processing and digitalisation of the material, with presentations and communication potential. Establishment of the Bequest of Stevan Kragujević in 2014 was of importance to the development of the funds of the Museum of Yugoslavia, whose photographic material grew in scope and importance.With its spatial limits for safeguarding of cultural assets and thanks to improvements brought by digitalisation, effective communication with the public was enabled. A specific model of cooperation was established with Tanja Kragujević, as a valuable example of joint efforts on primary protection of funds of great historic value and work on their wider accessibility and valorisation.
Art Collection of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (SASA) has formed in parallel with the establishment of the institution itself. At first, art pieces have served the purpose of adorning the premises of the Academy. Gradually, the art collection has become profiled and intentionally complemented by portraits of academics and later with artwork of academics and artists. Immediately after founding of the SASA Gallery, at the end of 1970s, at the initiative of the SASA Department of Fine Arts and Music, the Art Collection was duly listed according to rules of museology. Systematic purchase of works by artists/academics was planned, according to a defined programme. Still, the largest number of works has become part of the Collection as gifts of SASA members and numerous other donors. The largest art donation were drawings and other art on paper by academic Ivan Radović, gifted to the Academy by his widow, Olga. Soon, other academics/artists began to select their works to donate, in order to be representative of their art. This is how the gifts of Nedeljko Gvozdenović, Ljubica Sokić and Aleksandar Deroko have laid the foundations for today’s Art Collection of the Arts Academy.
Communication of the Pavle Beljanski Memorial Collection with the audience is based on unique presentation of the values represented by the donor and his legacy. The play Six Portraits of Pavle Beljanski,as one of the museum programme activities planned within numerous events of Novi Sad European Youth Capital 2019, has achieved several important goals: the connection between the legacy and the citizens’inclusion in the creative process, education of the audiences in an interesting and fun way, greater attendance of museum programmes and also promotion of the bequest concept. Joint efforts of the Memorial Collection curators and the drama pedagogue of the Mišolovka Youth Theatre (Mousetrap Youth Theatre) have resulted in a museum product that fullfils the main criteria of audience development: participation and animation. With six stories about Pavle Beljanski played throughout the entire museum space in interaction with the audience, some of the key events from the history of the legacy were also presented, drawing not only the attention of young population but also the attention of citizens across all age groups. Innovative and contemporary, simple inform and easy to memorize, the play Six Portraits of Pavle Beljanski contributed considerably to the image of the museum as a place close to the public. The play could be inspirational to similar institutions as an example how the audience can acquire knowledge about cultural heritage through direct experience.
Aware of its singularity and based on the idea of giving and charity, Matica Srpska has always nurtured the tradition of honouring and thanking all those who have contributed to its operations from its very beginnings in the 19th century. From the founding of the Museum,through its opening to the public in 1933, to its independence and situating of the Gallery of Matica Srpska in a separate building in 1958, special gratitude was expressed to the artists, their heirs and to the collectors who contributed to the art fund. At the beginning of the 90s, under very specific social and political circumstances, a series of exhibitions entitled Gift Collection was initiated at the Gallery of Matica Srpska. The goal of these exhibitions was to fill the art fund and also to promote the act of donating to museum institutions, as a contribution to the development of national culture. At first, such practice of organizing exhibitions of gift collections included exhibits of new works and publications of single-page catalogues with a short introductory texts and lists of art works which were gifted by donors. In the 21st century, representations of gift collections were improved with better quality and content of catalogues which contained expert reviews and reproductions of all donated works. Moreover, accompanying programmes such as talks with artists, guided tours and educational workshops for children were organized during exhibitions. The gift collection series have changed, developed and improved during their three decades of existence. Today, this is an exemplary model of filling the collection of the Gallery of Matica Srpska, with a unique attitude towards donors. Over time, it has become a brand that similarly appeals to artists, their heirs and also collectors to give presents and join the Friends Club of the Gallery of Matica Srpska. Thus, this gesture of donation provides them and also their works or their collections, with a permanent place in the history of Matica Srpska and Serbian culture.The gift collections of the Gallery of Matica Srpska, as a specific model of receiving, safeguarding and presenting artistic legacies, are unique examples in Serbian museums. This model points out how necessary it is to establish a system of handing over/donating artwork, but, at the same time, it also shows the need for that system to be constantly upgraded and improved to mutual satisfaction of the donors and the institutions that receive the gift of art.
The hand-written and bibliophilic legacy of the historian of civilization and the historiosopher Žarko Vidović, as an example of a not quite typical legate, points to some significant issues of legacy which legislation and cultural policy avoid or include only implicitly. In view of the fact that a written testament has not been found after Vidović’s death and that his successors wanted to preserve the rich written legacy he had left behind, a different question arose – the question of moral obligation in care of legacies. That question has directed us to the personal attitude of the legator towards his legacy, and to the relation of the legatee towards the legacy, which stems from a personal sense of duty and morality. The authenticity of Vidović’s written and oral testimonials, his careful attitude towards manuscripts and strong messages that his manuscripts and also his personality carry, have obliged his legatees to preserve well this legacy. However, that obligation would not exist if it did not stem from a personal feeling of duty of Vidović’s successors. The personal and interpersonal relations between legators and legatees enrich the inheritance and transform it into a legate. Thus, awareness of all the participants about the contribution to the common cultural values is also crucial for the realization of national interest.
This paper examines the role of the institute of bequest in heritage studies. It starts from a historical-theoretical definition of the notion of heritage and points to its connection with the institute of bequest: it derives a close original-legal character of both terms, but also their modern intertwining – from initial theoretical premises to social applicability. In that sense, a basic assumption expressed in the paper is that these concepts achieve their essential purpose only when they become part of life reality i.e. when they become a factor in creating social and cultural values of communities and individuals. It is noticed that, in the cases referring to the notion of heritage, heritage stakeholders choose what they inherit, while in the cases of bequests, the legatee receives the works assigned to them by the testator. The choice of heritage stakeholders is an expression of cultural and social values, and in that sense “choice” has a symbolic and metaphorical character which is then materialized through care for the inherited objects. On the other hand, the subject of a bequest is the property-legal benefit, and such “choice” is the result of legal regulations. Having in mind these similarities and differences, the goal of the paper has been to shed some light on heritage and bequest, both as notions (philosophical category) and as institutes (social formation) in order to offer a clearer understanding of these phenomena