Measurability of truth in science occurs within the framework of methodology, which we also define as the science of science. It is often forgotten that science, as an activity of the spirit, rests on the philosophical assumptions that the truth exists, that it can be known,and that it is a value in itself. Bypassing these premises, that is, taking science as a thing that is given, often invokes cyclic phenomena in its spheres, in which not only there is no new knowledge, but old cognitions are constantly recycled, filling columns with rows devoid of substance and form. In addition to focusing on the basic principles of verifiability of scientific thought, in this paper we will try to answer several general questions: What is science? What are the limits of science? What are the expectations of the scientific call and its role in the modern world?
Social exclusion appears as one of the main problems of modern societies. It is a process in which individuals or groups exclude themselves from opportunities, possibilities and rights a rising from political, economic and social spheres, as guaranteed by the organization of a particular society. One of the basic problems that sociologists and other researchers encounter is obviously different,often incomplete definition of social exclusion, which in many ways makes research difficult. For this reason, the problem of defining and operationalising of the notion of social exclusion is a very important step in investigating this phenomenon. There is a very small number of attempts to operationalise this term in literature, and there is often no difference between the concepts of social exclusion and poverty,since the concept of social exclusion is often used as a substitute for the notion of poverty. Within this paper, the problem of defining social exclusion, basic approaches, dimensions and its operationalisation will be discussed. The subject of this research is an analysis of the social exclusion concept. The aim of the paper is to use the method of definition of the term through creation of a precise and complete primarily sociological definition of the social exclusion concept and through analysis of its dimensions, to operationalise this notion and find indicators relevant to this research.
The aim of this paper is to propose and to present the use of statistical quantitative and qualitative research methods in the analysis of film, media and dramatic texts. In order to fulfil the goal, the film Gone Girl (2014) was analysed as a case study by using contrast analysis, analysis of the structure configuration, correlation analysis, distance and factor analysis. Statistical analyses were performed following the 17 characters and the two phenomena, with six variables. The film was analysed as a whole and divided into smaller narrative segments. The results of the analysis show that the application of statistical quantitative and qualitative methods have not led to the trivialization of the problem and the process of concluding, but have helped in discovering the deep layers of the dramatic text instead. Conclusion was drawn that statistical quantitative and qualitative methods should become part of the methodological apparatus in analyses of film, media and dramatic texts.
The paper deals with the differences between the analogue and the digital and the opportunities they can present in social research. It is stated that digitization has given a strong impetus to measurement in the social sciences, by producing large quantities of specified data. This allows for a more extensive and qualitative description, explanation and understanding of social phenomena. The author has classified the data used in social research into three groups: 1) original data generated on a digital platform, 2) original analogue data, and 3) the data that is partly digital and partly analogue. The author looks at each of these three types of data, treating their potentials and limitations in terms of social research.
In this paper, the issues of examining affective well-being in contemporary social research are presented. Affective well-being maybe defined as a balance between experienced positive and negative affects. In the first part of the paper, findings on the nature of affects,their mutual association and some cognitive biases related to self assessment of affective experience are presented. Then, the most commonly used measurement methods are chronologically presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each are highlighted. These include measurement instruments containing only one or more items,instruments for measuring the intensity as well as the frequency and the duration of affective experience, instruments based on self-assessments as well as assessments of other people, and subjective as well as some objective measuring instruments. Also, some cases are presented of extensive international researches involving affective well-being measurements on nationally representative samples. In the final part,some recommendations for further research as well as concluding considerations are derived.
The paper points out errors that can occur during the planning and selection of samples in the study of social phenomena, causes behind such errors and ways to overcome them. First, sample errors are classified in the paper according to several criteria: according to the sample type, i.e. whether it occurs in the probability or in the non probability sampling methods, and then with respect to the phase in which they occur. After that, the possibilities of overcoming different types of errors are pointed out. The relationship between sample size and possible errors is also analysed. In addition, attention is paid to the sample errors that can occur during fieldwork by the interviewer, which should be distinguished from interviewer-related errors that occur in the process of data collection.
This paper deals with case study research as a qualitative method that has not been much written about in the Serbian sociology. In the first part, the authors discuss the very concept of case study research, its main forms, features and limits. Case study research is especially convenient for researches on a sociologically “unknown” terrain, and one of its main features is the use of numerous qualitative and quantitative data gathering techniques. In the second part of the paper, a methodological analysis of the research the authors conducted using case study method is presented. Differently from some other methods, case study research usually offers a closer contact with the real and live social world.
Although often used to investigate a variety of scientific issues,case study as a research strategy still provokes open debate about it sepistemological reach and method of application. Through analysis of basic features of case study, as well as the complex research tasks it can solve, and through reference to course of implementation of such a research, the scope and limitations of its application in researching problems and topics pertaining to marginalized individuals and groups are outlined. Familiarity of researchers with the complexity of one of the most demanding research approaches in social science methodology,such as design of the case study, is a key condition for its successful application. It is therefore an intention of the authors of this paper to assist researchers, especially those without experience. We consider it necessary to distinguish its meaningful use from attempts at research that often defy its true meaning, reducing it solely to illustrative examples of life trajectories of individuals and groups from the borders of a particular community, without clearly explaining the underlying methodological procedures.
The last few years have seen a rapid increase in the use of visual research in a growing number of academic disciplines. In addition to its well-established applications in anthropology, ethnology, psychology,sociology and geography, the approach has been gaining popularity in applied research in a range of fields such as healthcare, culture, urban studies, educational research, social politics and social work. The key advantage of using visual materials, according to existing research is,that it can provide valuable insights into various areas of social life and reveal the often invisible everyday experiences of social stakeholders and important social processes. The application of a visual approach yields rich datasets which can be analysed from multiple perspectives,while the original records can be preserved for future reference. This paper aims to introduce the visual approach to researchers interested in applying visual research in practice. After a brief overview of the emergence and development of the approach, we provide an outline of the main methodological issues in application of visual materials in the era of digital data. The virtually ubiquitous use of different ICT products in visual research has brought about fundamental changes in all stages of the research process: from visual data collection to the way in which visual data are stored, searched, coded, analysed and interpreted.