Text topic: Comparative Situation Analyses
Text author: Татјана Николић, Милош Кувекаловић и Жарко Комар
This paper deals with separate and common characteristics of the currently valid statutory laws in the field of culture in four European countries. Those are: Germany (one of the most developed countries in Europe and one of the leading member states of the European Union), Greece (also member of the EU, but in different economic position; specially important for the European cultural heritage), Lithuania (former Soviet Union member, since 90s fast approaching the EU standards, also those in cultural policy) and Serbia, a country in transition, with its economical, political and cultural characteristics and factors. The aim of the research was to compare cultural policies of the countries above, based on adopted laws and other legal instruments of cultural policy. The research included the Constitutions of the countries above, top and bottom regulations in culture, (non)regulated areas in culture and arts, economical and political characteristics etc., and a detailed comparative analysis thereof. It is noted that modernization and changes in laws in the area of culture were aiming (in case of Serbia – are aiming) to adjust legislation to the European standards. The scope, structure and periods when existing legislation has been adopted, reflect the political priorities, aims and direction, social atmosphere and economic situation of a particular country. Despite economical situation and political instability, improvement of the cultural legislation in Serbia exists, although compared to other three countries a certain delay is obvious. The central element of cultural legislation in Serbia is Law on Culture, that came into force in March 2010. The last part of the paper deals with international declarations and conventions with statutory characteristics, as much as with process and dates of their ratification in each country. Central source of material for this paper was international web archive of evaluation on cultural policies Compendium, realised by ERICArts Institute.