CULTURAL PARTICIPATION AND CONSUMPTION

“A vibrant, diverse and inspiring cultural life to which citizens of all local communities and subcultures have access and can connect with, makes up a substantial part of the social fabric that determines functioning and attractive living localities-the quality of life that a place offers“. The topic of this paper is the insight in the field of cultural participation and consumption; more concretely it focuses on the levels of participation and consumption development in four countries: Serbia, Croatia, Sweden and the Netherlands. The first two countries have achieved rather similar stages throughout history, and consequently, many areas of cultural policy are structured in the same way and these countries share rather low level of development due to a long-standing and severe economic and political turbulences they have been facing. As a result, participation and consumption of culture have been put aside, as peoples of both countries were concentrated on bare survival. Today, conditions are slightly changed, but there are still many obstacles that these countries must try to overcome. Intersectorial connections, integration of culture and arts in regular education, programmes aimed at developing the audiences are only some of the tasks that these countries should carry out in times to come. On the other hand, Sweden and the Netherlands are known for high standards of life, welfare and prosperity, and thus their cultural practices have been supreme. In terms of the area of cultural policy in focus of this paper, Sweden and the Netherlands are at the top of European countries, and thus their methods are used as examples for the previously mentioned countries to look up to. The only identified issue is relatively low interest of young population in traditional forms. Still, the possibility of interconnecting multimedia with traditional culture might be solution to this problem.

EMPLOYMENT POLICIES FOR THE CULTURAL SECTOR

Employment policies for the cultural sector are, naturally, the intrinsic part of the status of the artists. They can be both restrictive and stimulating instruments for cultural bloom of any country. Employment policies require good integration of several policy areas, namely economics, social affairs, health and labor. That makes them an extremely complex and interesting issue for discussion. During the 21th general conference of UNESCO in Belgrade (1980), a list of Recommendations concerning the Status of the Artist was set up, which stressed that „(artists’) conditions of work and of employment should be such as to provide opportunities for artists who so wish to devote themselves fully to their artistic activities.“ However, in practice, different countries have taken with different seriousness all the measures proposed, which has resulted in numerous and qualitatively different methods of regulation of the artists’ status. The aim of this paper is to show how too affirmative employment policy which aims at providing secure jobs for an array of employees can lead toward stagnation of the whole sector, as well as how too restrictive and generalized employment measures and abandonment to free market forces can increase unemployment. Comparing the employment policies for the cultural sector of two EU and two non-EU countries, this paper discusses advantages and disadvantages of all four policy models and designs a cultural policy proposal for each of them. The research carried out in January 2010 showed that the UK and Finland have more developed employment policies and more entrepreneurial cultural workforce than Serbia and Russia, which still struggle with transitional circumstances. However, each state lacks consideration for the specific work conditions of certain artistic occupations, primarily the status of self-employed artists. Policy proposals are, thus, created according to the specific needs of their cultural sectors and examples of good practices of other European countries.

PUBLIC ART POLICIES – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

This paper explores the development of the public art policies and legal and financial mechanisms in the domain. The research is conducted in a form of a comparative analysis of three different public art policy approaches – the United States, France and the United Kingdom. In the text is presented the historical development of the 1% for art regulation from its origination in the early 1930s to the most recent time when this kind of regulation is usually maintained on the local or the regional level. Furthermore, modifications of the typical percent for art regulation introduced in recent times are also explored. Besides the 1% for art regulation, some other ways of supporting public art projects are analyzed. They could be classified in two groups:projects supported through the special public commission programs and projects supported through the public-private partnerships.

BASIC LEGAL SOLUTIONS IN CULTURE – SERBIA, GERMANY, LITHUANIA AND GREECE

This paper deals with separate and common characteristics of the currently valid statutory laws in the field of culture in four European countries. Those are: Germany (one of the most developed countries in Europe and one of the leading member states of the European Union), Greece (also member of the EU, but in different economic position; specially important for the European cultural heritage), Lithuania (former Soviet Union member, since 90s fast approaching the EU standards, also those in cultural policy) and Serbia, a country in transition, with its economical, political and cultural characteristics and factors. The aim of the research was to compare cultural policies of the countries above, based on adopted laws and other legal instruments of cultural policy. The research included the Constitutions of the countries above, top and bottom regulations in culture, (non)regulated areas in culture and arts, economical and political characteristics etc., and a detailed comparative analysis thereof. It is noted that modernization and changes in laws in the area of culture were aiming (in case of Serbia – are aiming) to adjust legislation to the European standards. The scope, structure and periods when existing legislation has been adopted, reflect the political priorities, aims and direction, social atmosphere and economic situation of a particular country. Despite economical situation and political instability, improvement of the cultural legislation in Serbia exists, although compared to other three countries a certain delay is obvious. The central element of cultural legislation in Serbia is Law on Culture, that came into force in March 2010. The last part of the paper deals with international declarations and conventions with statutory characteristics, as much as with process and dates of their ratification in each country. Central source of material for this paper was international web archive of evaluation on cultural policies Compendium, realised by ERICArts Institute.

CULTURAL AND CREATIVE INDUSTRIES IN EUROPE

As a result of transition from capitalist to post-capitalist societies and from economy of goods to service economy, the development of cultural and creative industries is becoming the focus of a growing number of countries. As there is no internationally accepted definition of the sector or tools for its analysis, understanding of the sector and instruments of cultural policies used for its development vary significantly from country to country. Through comparative analysis of the cultural policies of Great Britain, Spain, Serbia and Croatia this paper aims at giving an insight into the different stages of development and support measures related to cultural and creative industries and offers recommendations for further development of this sector in each country. Comparative analysis is based on statistical reports, laws, policies and strategic plans of these countries, and organized in eleven topics that are emerging as key issues for cultural and creative industries: the definition of sector and state policies and objectives related to it; mapping and data analysis; regionalization; inter-sectorial cooperation; education and training; diversity and tolerance; ICT; tax policy; copyright and intellectual property rights; support to small and medium enterprises; and internationalization. Great Britain is an example of a state that seriously analyzes the sector, strategically plans its development and cultural policy measures that encourage it. Spain is a country that has recently redefined cultural and creative industries as a national priority and has largely drawn regulations, measures and models from the experience of the UK. Serbia and Croatia are examples of countries that have not yet recognized the potential of cultural and creative industries and continue to have very traditional measures and regulations related to culture and its development, which causes the underdevelopment of the creative sector. 

DIGITALIZATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN THE FUNCTION OF ACHIEVING CULTURAL POLICY GOALS

Digitalization of cultural material can facilitate access to cultural heritage and encourage participation in culture. European countries use this potential differently. Thus, they contribute to the implementation of different purposes of their cultural policies. The European Union encourages countries to organize and finance activities in this domain. In this work, different measures and activities linked to the digitalization of cultural heritage and online accessibility are analyzed in Serbia, Croatia, United Kingdom and France. Activities in each of these countries are described separately. In this context, different activities of National library, Film archive and other cultural institutions in Serbia are analyzed. In addition, plans and activities of the Serbian Ministry of Culture in this domain are presented. Croatian ministry of Culture developed National digitalization program for libraries, archives and museums. Different projects in the United Kingdom implemented by the Department of culture, media and sport are also described. It is also analyzed how the French Ministry of Culture uses different financial and legislative measures and implements program and projects that favorite digitalization of cultural material and online accessibility in culture. In addition, some examples of the cooperation in this domain between public and private organizations are presented. In the conclusion, different results of the mentioned activities are compared and some similarities identified. At the end, on the basis of this parallel analysis, recommendations for digitalization of cultural material are put down for decision-makers in Serbia. 

A STRATEGIC DILEMMA OF CULTURAL POLICIES

The subject of this paper is a strategic dilemma of cultural policy concerning the issue of direct control or isolation from the political process (a dilemma regarding the implementation of cultural policies); whether cultural management must be fully integrated into the established system of budget financing from the state budget or if it is needed to reduce state control of the means of cultural production and distribution. The aim of this study is to arrive at possible measures and recommendations that need to be implemented in order to reduce political influence and excessive government intervention in cultural and artistic fields. The state is the most important factor in defining cultural policy and government intervention (except when it comes to the liberal model of cultural policy, which means a state policy of non-interference in cultural development) is of crucial importance to establish a continuous cultural development in a particular community. Complete state control leads to the risk of political interference as a result of different interests that do not correspond to the strategic objectives of cultural policy, while neutral stances and a lack of control can lead to the commercialization of culture.

Analyses of objectives, priorities and instruments of the state model of cultural policy in France, the para-state model of cultural policy in the Netherlands and the transition model of cultural policy in Croatia and Serbia, as well as the analysis of activities undertaken in the field of practical politics, leads to conclusions which reflect advantages and disadvantages of direct state control and intervention in the field of cultural policy, as well as the ways the detachment from the political process by using various instruments of cultural policy and the transfer of competencies to the para-state bodies can contribute to cultural development of the community and democratization of culture.

CHILDREN AND CULTURE IN SERBIA

The aim of this paper is to investigate the outcomes and potentials of culture for children and youth in Serbia in order to create a critical survey and clear picture of the current position of culture and art in the lives of children and youth and create a possible strategy for development of culture for children and youth. The relations between culture, adults and youth, presented in the introduction of this paper, show that family environment has a great role in shaping the cultural needs and habits of children and youth. The second part of the paper includes international documents and articles related to children and youth rights to culture. Furthermore, the paper analyzes Arts Education, its role, types, and presence in Serbian educational system. In the central part, the paper analyzes current flows in culture for children and youth by looking at the responsibilities, strategies, programs and activities of state institutions, cultural institutions and civil society. Though the final part of this paper permeates conclusions which indicate that children and youth in Serbia are not systematically and mindfully exposed to the quality cultural contexts, although their cultural growth has great significance for sustainable cultural development of Serbia, the paper presents draft of recommendations for stimulation of development of culture for children and youth.