TACITURNING, OBSTRUCTION, MARGINALIZATION: OBSTACLES ON THE ROAD TO WOMEN’S EXPERTISE PRACTICE

Ever since the beginning of the 20th century the demographic fact has been that the number of women compared to men constantly rises, the result being women for a long time have been making for more than a half of total population. It is also true that in the past their legal position in comparison to men considerably improved (both in quontity and quality) to achieve equality in the 20th century. However, there is still a gap between the idea and its realization, formal and material right. Thus the woman of the 21st century remains – despite all declared rights, clear potentials, education and capacities – often marginalized, and her right to work obstructed on the political, economic or cultural sphere as well as in the expertise practice of any kind. In the best case, our society in transition, overburned by stereotypes, traditionalism and patriarchcal relations taciturns her achievements. The statistical data clearly show that women are still missing in the key decision-making positions, that they are less paid than men for the same job, but outnumber men in the NGOs which mostly entail voluntary i.e. unpaid and less influential work. In 106 years of the Beograd University there was only one female rector, and according to the 2006 data of the Federal Bureau of Statistics only 30% of the Beograd University academic community were women. A somewhat better situation is in cultural institutions where women are usually directors of libraries, schools, kindergardens, museums or social centers. But, on the other hand, of 19 Beograd theaters, women are top executives in only six.

SOCIO-CULTURAL CONSTRUCTION OF FEMALES

Cultural, social, political, legal, ethical and other value standards are very susceptible to changes in socio-cultural environment. These transformations are most visible in the cultural patterns, fiction literature, media and education. In our view, media and education play a crucial role in the creation of constructs – construct of femininity included. In the introduction part, analysing recent literature we discuss contemporary transformations of archetypical concept of femininity. We examine two spheres which have, in our opinion, the most important influence on the socio-cultural construction of females – the media and education. The second chapter of the article explores the impact of media on the construction of femininity. Images of women in the media are the result of general social climate. The latter may change by constant focusing on such topics aimed to result in sensitization of public, among other a seemingly small, but important thing in this process – the use of gender-equal language. The third part deals with the impact of education on the construction of femininity. Education is in fact an expression of the social system. It entails equality of opportunity to change the position that individuals acquire by birth or inheritance. We’re talking about European and international recommendations for the introduction of gender equality in education. We give examples of good practice of gender equality in education in schools and colleges in Serbia. In the concluding remarks we summarize the findings presented in this paper.

GOLDBERG THROUGH THE FEMININE PRISM

Harpsichord, a baroque key instrument, was forgotten at the end of the eighteenth century and completely suppressed, first by early pianoforte, then by modern piano. In the twentieth century two women of Slav (Polish and Czech) and Jewish religion, Wanda Landowska and Zuzana Ružičkova, revived the interest for early music and managed to return harpsichord to the European and world concert stages. This paper is dedicated to the memory of the Wanda Landowska’s pioneer activities in saving the rich and forgotten baroque music world from oblivion, so it can stand on the contemporary musical scene with equal rights among other music periods. One of the many debts of gratitude we owe also  to Wanda Landowska, is having viewed music as a continuum rather than a progressing art ever perfecting itself. Due to this approach she understood that great work is achieved in any period and embodies a synthesis of preceding scores as well as a reflection of its own age, if not that of a vision beyond its own present. Therefore in order to recreate the spirit behind the music, Landowska immersed herself into a lifelong study of baroque performance practice and the historical periods in other artistic disciplines surrounding musical works. This paper is also dedicated to the big role of another female harpsichordist Zuzana Ružičkova in accepting Madame Landowska’ s legacy, applying it and developing it further on. The most interesting fact is that both harpsichordists in their repertoires preferred J. S. Bach and his Goldberg Variations, often regarded as the most serious and ambitious composition ever written for harpsichord. Without their love, passion and perservance in fulfilling their obsession with harpsichord and early music, contemporary musical world could have lost a part of its heritage and thus could be so much more barren place.

EXPERTISE AND POTENTIAL OF WOMEN’S ACTIVISM

The authors of the paper address women’s activism, which has opened many doors for women around the world – since the Victorian era, as well as the needs of women for better opportunities to gain proper education. Education has always been the stumbling rock for women whose goal is to gain equal status in society, and is one of the main factors that separated men and women. Without education to empower them, many women felt they should not have the right to influence policy or to make decisions about their own property. Education system in every society has a great responsibility to communicate the values ​​of gender equality, especially among younger generations. State institutions are trying to carry out their actions to achieve gender equality, which are based on consensus on the need for its establishment. The road to relatively high employment rate for women was not easy and is under theinfluence of many demographic factors, with emphasis on the European regional differences. In order to maintain protection and equal social rights, the tolerance in relations between employers and employees, it is necessary to achieve high level of cultural and social compromise of collective interests.

THE WOLLSTONECRAFT DILEMMA

The Otherness becomes a field of new opportunities of cultural policies.The leading theoreticians of economy of knowledge and creative industries introduce metaphores derived from the female experience, such as family, recipe, cooking in the masculine culture. And that entranceof female nature also enables the feminists to deconstruct the equality dilemma as negation of their own gender identity. The women-experts, heads of some of the leading Novi Sad cultural institutions, prove by their working standards that these (new) strategies of cultural engineering are not simply successful but also necessary in revitalization of institutions and definition of new relation of private and public civil principles.

THE ADVANTAGES OF THE WORLD WIDE WEB FOR WOMEN’S OGANISATIONS IN COMPARISON TO TRADITIONAL MEDIA

Due to the speed of communication, transmission, searching for and representing information, its global availability and simplicity, Internet and web surpass other forms of public work and activist engagement. In this paper, we point out the advantages of new media technology which can be applied by women’s organisations for their presentations and political engagement in the protection and promotion of women’s human rights in relation to the earlier practice of marginalisation of women present in print media, radio and television. The paper is based on the five-month analysis of 10 women’s non-governmental websites in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the one hand, and the website of the Government Agency for the Equality of the Sexes in Bosnia and Herzegovina on the other. All the aforementioned sites were regularly observed from 1st October till 1st March 2010. Establishing the websites, women’s non-governmental organisations in Bosnia and Herzegovina made the first step towards the membership in the virtual world, but they still have to ‘’learn’’ how to use and benefit from this membership.

GENDER PERSPECTIVE IN INFORMATION SOURCES IN DAILY NEWSPAPERS IN SERBIA

In the text the author discusses the theoretical approach of critical discourse studies and applies it in interpretation of the data gathered through quantitative and qualitative content analysis of leading daily newspapers in Serbia with the focus on culture sections. The period analyzed is November 2010. The total of 180 text accompanied with 79 photographs was sampled. The actors of the selected events which the sampled media covered were dominantly men (62), and sporadically women (8). Media genre analysis showed that the culture columns nurture interview as the main journalistic technique to promote the artists and their work. The analyzed culture pages during the observed period, contained the total of 17 interviews. The ratio of the interviewed men and interviewed women in the corpus was 88,57% : 11,42%. Therefore, women as creators, not selected as the interviewees, remained invisible for the wider audiences. In this context, women have not earned media attention in terms of being relevant creators of cultural offer in Serbia. The women have been left out in the visual graphics of the text as well. The photos following the texts did not portray any examples of myzogynia, nor discrimination, but a visible disbalance has been noted. In the photos, there were 4 times less women portraits, compared to men’s (37). In short, after the analysis of selection of events, media genres, quotations, visuals, patterns of professional language use and author signatures, it is concluded that the media image of Serbian culture is fully masculinized. Although there are improvements in, for example, language usage that is most of the time gender sensitive, and in the employment of female journalists who outnumber men in culture sections, both as content producers and editors who make decisions, the dominant discourse of culture sections of newspapers reflects masculine pattern that clearly demonstrates that position of power is occupied by men in Serbian society.

BARRIERS TO WOMEN’S EXPERTISE IN CULTURAL SECTOR

In today’s world there is an obvious imbalance between women’s social role and their tangible social position, despite the eminent influence they have on all aspects of social, scientific, cultural, economic and other public activities. Different studies show that they are unable to ascend in their public roles and their public influence is slowly but surely diminishing. Even the cultural sector, which is routinely perceived as “feminized” environment, is characterized by under-representation of women in management and governing structures. Liberal in outlook and egalitarian in character, cultural organizations often employ large portion of the female workforce, and hence have perfect conditions for aspiring women to become leaders in their fields of expertise. Studies, however, show that women are significantly under-represented at the top of the most prestigious cultural institutions. Throughout history, multiple cultural, political and structural barriers continue to handicap women in their fight for acceptance and recognition. This paper analyzes the barriers which prevent women from ascending to leading positions in their fields of expertise.