THE CULTURE OF VIRTUAL (UN)REALITY

The Internet could be defined as a semantically floating environment whose codes mirror everyday acts of a subject or social group; such environment is a novelty per se (in the sense of the medium itself), but also concerns the way in which the communication process is being reconstituted. A medium (channel, means) of communication, as far as the Internet is concerned, connects textual audio and visual elements adding interactivity to them – the possibility of influencing the form and content of requested information. The paradox of a subject and an identity lies in the fact that the subject is simultaneously free to set coordinates of his/her presence on the Web by creating his/her personal profile, but at the same time is imprisoned within cyber space of the screen entirely occupying the visual field. So, we have to ask if the `reality` and `copy of reality` are the issue here or are we at the beginning of a new, different reality within which `real` and `virtual` are being increasingly intertwined?

MEDIA LITERACY AND CULTURE OF THE PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN NIŠ

This work analyses the relationship between media and education, especially the possibilities of developing the media culture and literacy in institutional education. In the process of developing media culture and literacy, schools have a very important role being the basic educational institutions which are expected to lead a planned and systematic action with the aim of achieving the best effects of media education. In order to find out in which ways schools develop media culture and literacy, what potentials can schools use to develop these processes and if there is a difference in attitudes of students depending on their gender, we have analyzed the attitudes of primary school pupils. The work explains the results of an extensive research implemented on the sample of 142 pupils attending primary schools on the City of Niš territory. The results have confirmed that there is no statistically significant difference between the attitudes of male and female students concerning the school milieu as a favorable environment for development of media culture and literacy, within both teaching process and extracurricular activities.

THE MEASURE OF CULTURE IN CULTURAL SECTIONS

We live in a time when our lives are saturated with information. We daily receive numerous messages through various media outlets. For example, in the US, during one year, about 200 000 books are published, approximately 70 million hours of programs are broadcast by radio stations and about 58 million hours of television programs are produced. “From the day of your birth until today more information was produced than during all recorded history before you, while half the total number of all scientists in history lives and produces information today.” Every year we publish more books. If you decided to read everything that has been published in one year, you would have to read one book every three minutes, which is about five hundred books a day. This, of course, only refers to the latest world production, and not the classics. Question is how many of the newly published books are read, how and how much the books and culture in general are covered in commentaries, how well the journalists are trained and if they are at all capable of selecting, clarifying and structuring such a horrific amount of information for us at a time of world crisis which has devastated Serbia as well in material, cultural and also media-related sense. A year ago results were published in Serbia of a study conducted by master student of the Faculty of political sciences in Belgrade who investigated the treatment of the book in Serbian media. These results were far from encouraging – apart from Radio Belgrade 2 and special weekend newspaper additions dedicated to book reviews, the book is generally neglected in the Serbian printed media, while the book reports themselves lack the necessary serious approach and deeper pondering. Focus of this paper is monitoring and analysis of cultural contributions in three daily newspapers, the Politika, the Večernje novosti and the Danas over a period 29.09.2012 – 2.10.2012. Its purpose was to show the content of these cultural sections, to make a comparative analysis of their content and quality of content, as well as to pinpoint the basic topics covered and pursue the question if the printed media create contents that raise public attention. The analysis had an empirical and conceptual approach, and covered quantity and quality baselines.

GALATEO ON MANNERS. THE RULES OF CIVILITY BY GIOVANNI DELLA CASA, 1558

The rules of civility (the popular books on manners) may serve as reflections on the principles that shape everyday life of a society, offering codes of conduct to its members. Such was, possibly the first such modern book, Giovanni della Casa’s “Galateo” of 1558, in which the author dealt with the bad habits that were to be overcome if one wished to be considered a gentleman. “Galateo” did not represent a set of propositions meant for successful service at a princely court, such as Castiglione’s “Cortegiano”. It was written, instead, as a set of rules, which one was to follow as an active and civilized member of a republican society. “Galateo” focused on those models of conduct that represented basis for the definition of civility which understands the existence of cultural habits that are still considered positive and welcome, focusing on politeness, respect and consideration for others we are so much in the need of today.

CULTURE AND HAPPINESS

The spirit of culture is contained in the Socratic call to self-knowledge, in order to improve our morale, wisdom and wellbeing, which not only brings happiness, but is the true happiness. Culture goes beyond information and knowledge into cognition that contributes to the flourishing of both the individual and social life. The real meaning of culture lies in our stronger, more conscious and alert presence in the world. We have to be aware of the fundamental difference between “having” education or culture as an accumulation of information and knowledge and “being” an educated, cultivated person as a result of reflective, alert and creative living. Culture is a biophilic, generative orientation, as it allows free flow and affirmation of life energies in their multiple expressions and forms. Not until we restitute to culture its original meaning, spirit, and Eros which permeated it from immemorial times, through the educational system and other social channels and institutions, the concept of culture will not be carried across to younger generations in that inspiring meaning and sense, and they will experience it as alien and hostile to their needs, interests, and pursuit of happiness.

CYBERNETIC EUGENICS: CULTURE IN THE BERMUDA TRIANGLE AND THE DISAPPEARANCE OF MAN

In the work “Cybernetic Eugenics: Culture in the Bermuda Triangle and the Disappearance of Man” we identify strategic concepts and theoretical directions and analysis of culture in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, authored by Paul Virilio, a cultural theorist and phenomenologist, whose thought is based in physics, philosophy, politics and urban planning. Paul Virilio’s analysis is focused on mutual interweaving and taking human’s ontology that takes place in the triangle of war – speed – the means of representation, such as machines of perception and logistics of perception. Virilio’s project is not, however, aimed only at identification of the impact of internal logic of individual technologies or technological phenomena on culture, but also penetrates into broad implicit impact that this technology has on the collective perception of space and time, where each new technological device has affected the discipline and colonization of the human subject, allowing establishment of the ‘globalitarian’ power which, supported by science without conscience and bio-technological extremism, shatters and breaks down the very foundations of humanity.

THE CONCEPTS OF THE CULTURAL MODEL AND THE SEMI-INTELLECTUAL

The culture of a nation as understood by Slobodan Jovanović (1869–1958) encompasses all aspects of intellectual life, science, religion, ethics, literature, art, politics, law, army, economy, customs and leisure. The paper presents the phenomenon of a semi-intellectual as described and understood at the time the term was invented. It points to association with the concepts used in Bogdan Popović’s (1864–1944) “theory of the parvenu”. The semi-intellectual’s evolution ends with his taking over the position of the intellectual. The paper examines if the concept of the semi-intellectual as defined by S. Jovanovic is applicable to the present time.

LIVING WITHOUT CULTURE: THE MEDIA AND CULTURAL POLITICS IN SERBIA

Media are intermediaries in the system of culture. Their role is one of a watchdog, carefully monitoring the Government. This is why the topic of this presentation is the relationship between the media and cultural policy. The basic research question is: If cultural policy represents a response to cultural needs and problems of the society and particular social groups in culture and arts, in what way do media mediate to fulfill this function? Another question is whose interests the media represent. If they are privately owned – are they protecting the interests of the citizens in whose name the Government is carrying out public policies or are they protecting the interests of the capital owners? The number of published articles on contemporary art production and the national cultural heritage indicates that there is no correlation between cultural policy and the media content in Serbia. Cultural policy favors non-commercial cultural and artistic content, while the media favor commercial ones.

GARBAGE COLLECTORS AND/OR ARTISTS: IS IDOLATRY OF WASTE UNCULTURED

In this papers the authors attempt to explore the relationship between contemporary art and industrial waste material and its interface with society. In addition, the paper deals with the physical and mental human pollution in modern society and the role of the artist as a witness and a visionary. Discarded objects, exploited and abandoned, like tired old men, became objects of idolatry and a new obsession for a number of artists. Question is how did it come to legitimate glorification of rubbish and waste, ie. many discarded and worn items of industrial production and mass culture.

CULTURE BETWEEN THE WAR OF SPIRIT AND THE SPIRIT OF WAR

This paper explores the concept of culture in the work of a Russian immigrant writer Irina Aleksander (1900-2002), based on the concepts of “the war of spirit” and “the spirit of war,” which is important for understanding of her aesthetic and political ideas, as well as her artistic and socio-political activities.